Emanuel Lasker en 1933
|Naissance||24 décembre 1868
Berlinchen ( Prusse)
|Décès||11 janvier 1941 (70 ans)|
|Profession(s)||Joueur d’ échecs, mathématicien|
|Distinctions||Champion du monde d’échecs
Emanuel Lasker, 24 décembre 1868 à Berlinchen, Prusse (aujourd’hui en Pologne) – 11 janvier 1941, à New York, est un joueur d’échecs et un mathématicien allemand. Champion du monde d’échecs, il est perçu comme un joueur qui apprécie affronter psychologiquement son adversaire. Depuis la création officielle du titre de champion du monde, en 1886, il est celui qui l’a conservé le plus longtemps, de 1894 à 1921, soit 27 ans, mais où durant près de vingt années (de 1898 à 1906 et de 1911 à 1920), il ne remit pas son titre en jeu.
Emmanuel Lasker jeune.
Joueur professionnel d’échecs, Emmanuel Lasker était aussi docteur en mathématiques et en philosophie.
Après quelques succès en Allemagne, Lasker partit en Angleterre et y remporta de nombreux matchs, notamment contre Bird, Mieses et Blackburne. En 1894, il lança un défi au maître Siegbert Tarrasch qui venait de remporter plusieurs très forts tournois, mais Tarrasch refusa de l’affronter en match, qualifiant ses succès de « victoires à la douzaine ».
Qu’importe pour Lasker, il partit en Amérique où résidait Wilhelm Steinitz. Il mit fin au règne du premier champion du monde, sur le score de 12 à 7 : 10 victoires, 5 défaites, et 4 nulles, et gagna également la revanche, disputée en 1896-1897, à Moscou, sur un score encore plus sévère : 12,5–4,5 (10 victoires, 2 défaites, et 5 nulles).
Champion du monde (1895-1921)
Portrait paru en 1908
Sa première sortie en tant que champion du monde fut décevante : en 1895, il termina 3e du tournoi d’Hastings, derrière Tchigorine et le surprenant vainqueur, Pillsbury. Mais Lasker prit le dessus sur tous ses adversaires en gagnant les tournois de Saint-Pétersbourg et de Nuremberg en 1896, puis celui de Londres en 1899, où il s’imposa avec 4,5 points d’avance. Enfin, en 1900, il remporta aisément le tournoi organisé à Paris pour l’ exposition universelle.
Ses apparitions dans les tournois étaient rares, car ses prétentions financières étaient élevées : Lasker voulait s’assurer de quoi vivre. C’est pourquoi il ne revint dans les tournois qu’en 1904. Il fut devancé au tournoi de Cambridge Springs par Frank James Marshall et perdit deux parties. En 1907, il accepta le défi du joueur américain pour un championnat du monde, le premier depuis 10 ans. Lasker s’imposa sans difficulté (+8 -0 =7). En 1908, le match tant attendu avec Tarrasch eut lieu : Lasker l’emporta aisément (+8 -3 =5) et clarifia sa suprématie dans son pays. L’année 1909 fut active pour Lasker : il dut s’employer pour remporter le tournoi de Saint-Pétersbourg, à égalité avec Akiba Rubinstein, contre qui il s’inclina. Puis deux matches contre David Janowski : l’un s’achèva par la nulle (+2 -2), l’autre par une nette victoire (+7 -1 =2) qu’on qualifia à tort de championnat du monde.
En 1910, Lasker remit une nouvelle fois son titre en jeu, contre l’Autrichien Carl Schlechter. Il fut pourtant bien près de le perdre contre un joueur réputé pacifique : dans un match en 10 parties, Schlechter devait s’imposer avec 2 points d’écart (il n’y a cependant aucune preuve formelle de cette règle). Il remporta la 5e partie et toutes les autres étaient nulles avant la 10e. Lasker se trouva en difficulté, mais lui tendit un piège, et Schlechter trébucha. Lasker devint le premier champion du monde à conserver son titre par match nul (+1 -1 =8). Il proposa cependant de continuer le match, mais Schlechter déclina l’offre. La même année, Lasker retrouva David Janowski qui fit encore moins le poids que l’année précédente : 8 victoires et 3 nulles pour le champion du monde.
La sortie suivante de Lasker fut à Saint-Pétersbourg, en mai 1914. Son adversaire le plus redoutable fut José Raúl Capablanca, dont les succès et le style impressionnaient le monde des échecs par sa simplicité. Le Cubain prit l’avantage au début du tournoi, mais dans la deuxième partie finale, Lasker revint très fort et le battit pour finalement le devancer. La Première Guerre mondiale éclata quelques semaines plus tard. Après la grande guerre, Capablanca lança un défi à Lasker. Son pays vaincu, il voulut abandonner son titre sans jouer, mais la bourse proposée à La Havane le convainquit de disputer ce match. Fatigué par le climat cubain, déprimé par la supériorité de Capablanca, Lasker abandonna le match après 14 parties (+0 –4 =10).
Fin de carrière (1924-1941)
Portrait de Emmanuel Lasker, en 1929.
Cependant, Lasker continua à jouer. En 1924, il remporta encore le prestigieux tournoi de New York, devant Capablanca et Alexandre Alekhine. L’année suivante, il fut 2e à Moscou derrière Efim Bogoljubov, mais devant une fois encore Capablanca. Il s’ensuivit neuf années sans jouer. L’accession d’Adolf Hitler au pouvoir le poussa à l’exil, lui qui était juif. En 1934, il refit son apparition à Zurich. Puis il disputa les deux tournois de Moscou en 1935 et 1936 où il finit respectivement 3e et 6e. Son dernier tournoi eut lieu à Nottingham en août 1936 : il termina 7e à l’âge de 68 ans. Il quitta l’Europe pour s’installer à New York. En décembre 1940, victime d’un malaise pendant un cours, il mourut le 13 janvier 1941.
Style de jeu
Doté d’un style éclectique, il savait s’adapter au style de jeu de son partenaire pour le battre, même s’il fallait prendre le risque de perdre la partie.
Il lui arriva durant sa carrière d’abandonner pendant quelque temps les échecs. Pour Lasker, jouer aux échecs était un métier comme un autre. Si la récompense pour l’effort fourni en valait la peine, il était prêt à jouer, sinon il vaquait à autre chose. Il fut ainsi membre de l’équipe d’Allemagne de bridge au championnat du monde, et fut aussi maître du jeu de go, tout comme il termina son doctorat en mathématiques pendant son règne sur les échecs.
1889-1897 : la conquête du championnat du monde
Lasker (à droite) face à Steinitz en 1894
Tournoi d’Hastings, 1895.
Tournoi de Nuremberg en 1896
1899-1910 : champion du monde
Assis : Lasker, Rubinstein, Schlechter et Tarrasch à Berlin en 1918
Capablanca et Emmanuel Lasker à Moscou en 1925
Les années 1911-1913 virent l’émergence d’une nouvelle génération de jeunes joueurs : Rubinstein, Capablanca, Alekhine. De 1911 à 1920, Lasker ne disputa aucun match de championnat du monde.
Lasker (à droite) face à Botvinnik, à Moscou en 1936.
Emanuel Lasker était un ami d’Albert Einstein, qui regrettait qu’un aussi grand esprit se soit abandonné aux échecs.
Lors du tournoi de Londres en 1899, Lasker fut surpris par le coup joué par Joseph Henry Blackburne, un sacrifice de tour. Il laissa échapper le verre qu’il tenait, qui se brisa sur le sol, et perdit la partie.
|Full name||Emanuel Lasker|
|Born||December 24, 1868
Berlinchen, Prussia (now Barlinek, Poland)
|Died||January 11, 1941 (aged 72)
New York City, United States
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years. In his prime Lasker was one of the most dominant champions, and he is still generally regarded as one of the strongest players ever.
His contemporaries used to say that Lasker used a « psychological » approach to the game, and even that he sometimes deliberately played inferior moves to confuse opponents. Recent analysis, however, indicates that he was ahead of his time and used a more flexible approach than his contemporaries, which mystified many of them. Lasker knew the openings well but disagreed with many contemporary analyses. He published chess magazines and five chess books, but later players and commentators found it difficult to draw lessons from his methods.
He demanded high fees for playing matches and tournaments, which aroused criticism at the time but contributed to the development of chess as a professional career. The conditions which Lasker demanded for World Championship matches in the last ten years of his reign were controversial, and prompted attempts, particularly by his successor José Raúl Capablanca, to define agreed rules for championship matches.
Lasker made contributions to the development of other games. He was a first-class contract bridge player and wrote about this and other games, including Go and his own invention, Lasca. His books about games presented a problem which is still considered notable in the mathematical analysis of card games. Besides, Lasker was a research mathematician who was known for his contributions to commutative algebra, as he defined the primary decomposition property of the ideals of some commutative rings when he proved that polynomial rings have the primary decomposition property. On the other hand, his philosophical works and a drama that he co-authored received little attention.
Life and career
Early years 1868–1894
Lasker as a young man
Emanuel Lasker was born on December 24, 1868 at Berlinchen in Neumark (now Barlinek in Poland), the son of a Jewish cantor. At the age of eleven he was sent to Berlin to study mathematics, where he lived with his brother Berthold, eight years his senior, who taught him how to play chess. According to the website Chessmetrics, Berthold was among the world’s top ten players in the early 1890s.  To supplement their income Emanuel Lasker played chess and card games for small stakes, especially at the Café Kaiserhof.  
Emanuel Lasker shot up through the chess rankings in 1889, when he won the Café Kaiserhof’s annual Winter tournament 1888/89 and the Hauptturnier A (« second division » tournament) at the sixth DSB Congress (German Chess Federation’s congress) held in Breslau. He also finished second in an international tournament at Amsterdam, ahead of some well-known masters, including Isidore Gunsberg (assessed as the second strongest player in the world at that time by Chessmetrics).      In 1890 he finished third in Graz, then shared first prize with his brother Berthold in a tournament in Berlin.   In spring 1892, he won two tournaments in London, the second and stronger of these without losing a game.   At New York 1893, he won all thirteen games,    one of the few times in chess history that a player has achieved a perfect score in a significant tournament.   
His record in matches was equally impressive: at Berlin in 1890 he drew a short play-off match against his brother Berthold; and won all his other matches from 1889 to 1893, mostly against top-class opponents: Curt von Bardeleben (1889; ranked 9th best player in the world by Chessmetrics at that time ), Jacques Mieses (1889; ranked 11th ), Henry Edward Bird (1890; then 60 years old; ranked 29th ), Berthold Englisch (1890; ranked 18th ), Joseph Henry Blackburne (1892, without losing a game; Blackburne was aged 51 then, but still 9th in the world ), Jackson Showalter (1892–1893; 22nd ) and Celso Golmayo Zúpide (1893; 29th ).   Chessmetrics calculates that Emanuel Lasker became the world’s strongest player in mid-1890,  and that he was in the top ten from the very beginning of his recorded career in 1889. 
The players and tournament officials at the New York 1893 tournament
In 1892 Lasker founded the first of his chess magazines, The London Chess Fortnightly, which was published from August 15, 1892 to July 30, 1893. In the second quarter of 1893 there was a gap of ten weeks between issues, allegedly because of problems with the printer.  Shortly after its last issue Lasker traveled to the USA, where he spent the next two years. 
Lasker challenged Siegbert Tarrasch, who had won three consecutive strong international tournaments ( Breslau 1889, Manchester 1890, and Dresden 1892), to a match. Tarrasch haughtily declined, stating that Lasker should first prove his mettle by attempting to win one or two major international events. 
Chess competition 1894–1918
Match against Steinitz
Wilhelm Steinitz, whom Lasker beat in World Championship matches in 1894 and 1896
Rebuffed by Tarrasch, Lasker challenged the reigning World Champion Wilhelm Steinitz to a match for the title.  Initially Lasker wanted to play for US $5,000 a side and a match was agreed at stakes of $3,000 a side, but Steinitz agreed to a series of reductions when Lasker found it difficult to raise the money. The final figure was $2,000, which was less than for some of Steinitz’ earlier matches (the final combined stake of $4,000 would be worth over $495,000 at 2006 values ). Although this was publicly praised as an act of sportsmanship on Steinitz’ part,  Steinitz may have desperately needed the money.  The match was played in 1894, at venues in New York, Philadelphia, and Montreal. Steinitz had previously declared he would win without doubt, so it came as a shock when Lasker won the first game. Steinitz responded by winning the second, and was able to maintain the balance through the sixth. However, Lasker won all the games from the seventh to the eleventh, and Steinitz asked for a week’s rest. When the match resumed, Steinitz looked in better shape and won the 13th and 14th games. Lasker struck back in the 15th and 16th, and Steinitz was unable to compensate for his losses in the middle of the match. Hence Lasker won convincingly with ten wins, five losses and four draws.    Lasker thus became the second formally-recognized World Chess Champion, and confirmed his title by beating Steinitz even more convincingly in their re-match in 1896–1897 (ten wins, five draws, and two losses).  
Successes in tournaments
Sketch of Lasker, ca. 1894
Influential players and journalists belittled the 1894 match both before and after it took place. Lasker’s difficulty in getting backing may have been caused by hostile pre-match comments from Gunsberg and Leopold Hoffer,  who had long been a bitter enemy of Steinitz.  One of the complaints was that Lasker had never played the other two members of the top four, Siegbert Tarrasch and Mikhail Chigorin  – although Tarrasch had rejected a challenge from Lasker in 1892, publicly telling him to go and win an international tournament first.   After the match some commentators, notably Tarrasch, said Lasker had won mainly because Steinitz was old (58 in 1894).  
Emanuel Lasker answered these criticisms by creating an even more impressive playing record. Before World War I broke out his most serious « setbacks » were third place at Hastings 1895 (where he may have been suffering from the after-effects of typhoid fever ), a tie for second at Cambridge Springs 1904, and a tie for first at the Chigorin Memorial in St Petersburg 1909.  He won first prizes at very strong tournaments in St Petersburg (1895–1896, Quadrangular), Nuremberg (1896), London (1899), Paris (1900) and St Petersburg (1914), where he overcame a 1½ point deficit to finish ahead of the rising stars, Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine, who later became the next two World Champions.      For decades chess writers have reported that Tsar Nicholas II of Russia conferred the title of » Grandmaster of Chess » upon each of the five finalists at St Petersburg 1914 (Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall), but chess historian Edward Winter has questioned this, stating that the earliest known sources supporting this story were published in 1940 and 1942.   
Matches against Marshall and Tarrasch
Lasker’s match record was as impressive between his 1896–1897 re-match with Steinitz and 1914: he won all but one of his normal matches, and three of those were convincing defenses of his title. He first faced Marshall in the World Chess Championship 1907, when despite his aggressive style, Marshall could not win a single game, losing eight and drawing seven (final score: 11½-3½). 
He then played Tarrasch in the World Chess Championship 1908, first at Düsseldorf then at Munich. Tarrasch firmly believed the game of chess was governed by a precise set of principles.  For him the strength of a chess move was in its logic, not in its efficiency. Because of his stubborn principles he considered Lasker as a coffeehouse player who won his games only thanks to dubious tricks, while Lasker mocked the arrogance of Tarrasch who, in his opinion, shone more in salons than at the chessboard. At the opening ceremony, Tarrasch refused to talk to Lasker, only saying: »Mr. Lasker, I have only three words to say to you: check and mate !«  
pawn down, with a bad bishop and doubled pawns. At this point it appeared Tarrasch was winning, but 20 moves later he was forced to resign.  Lasker eventually won by 10½-5½ (eight wins, five draws, and three losses). Tarrasch claimed the wet weather was the cause of his defeat. 
Matches against Janowski
In 1909 Lasker drew a short match (two wins, two losses) against Dawid Janowski, an all-out attacking Polish expatriate. Several months later they played a longer match, and chess historians still debate whether this was for the World Chess Championship.  Understanding Janowski’s style, Lasker chose to defend solidly so that Janowski unleashed his attacks too soon and left himself vulnerable. Lasker easily won the match 8–2 (seven wins, two draws, one loss).  This victory was convincing for everyone but Janowski, who asked for a revenge match. Lasker accepted and they played World Chess Championship match in Paris in November–December 1910. Lasker crushed his opponent, winning 9½-1½ (eight wins, three draws, no losses).  Janowski was not able to understand Lasker’s moves, and after his first three losses he declared to Edward Lasker, « Your homonym plays so stupidly that I cannot even look at the chessboard when he thinks. I am afraid I will not do anything good in this match. » 
Match against Schlechter
Schlechter would have taken Lasker’s world title if he had won the last game of their 1910 match.
Between his two matches against Janowski, Lasker arranged another World Chess Championship in January–February 1910 against Carl Schlechter. Schlechter was a modest gentleman, who was generally unlikely to win the major chess tournaments by his peaceful inclination, his lack of aggressiveness and his willingness to accept most draw offers from his opponents (about 80% of his games finished by a draw).  The conditions of the match against Lasker are still debated among chess historians, but it seems Schlechter accepted to play under very unfavourable conditions, notably that he would need to finish two points ahead of Lasker to be declared the winner of the match, and he would need to win a revenge match to be declared World Champion.  The match was originally meant to consist of 30 games, but when it became obvious that there were insufficient funds (Lasker demanded a fee of 1,000 marks per game played), the number of games was reduced to ten, making the margin of two points all the more difficult. 
At the beginning, Lasker tried to attack but Schlechter had no difficulty defending, so that the first four games finished in draws. In the fifth game Lasker had a big advantage, but committed a blunder that cost him the game. Hence at the middle of the match Schlechter was one point ahead. The next four games were drawn, despite fierce play from both players. In the sixth Schlechter managed to draw a game being a pawn down. In the seventh Lasker nearly lost because of a beautiful exchange sacrifice from Schlechter. In the ninth only a blunder from Lasker allowed Schlechter to draw a lost ending. The score before the last game was thus 5–4 for Schlechter. In the tenth game Schlechter tried to win tactically and took a big advantage, but he missed a clear win at the 35th move, continued to take increasing risks and finished by losing.  Hence the match was a draw and Lasker remained World Champion.
José Raúl Capablanca won the world title from Lasker in 1921.
In 1911 Lasker received a challenge for a world title match against the rising star José Raúl Capablanca. Lasker was unwilling to play the traditional « first to win ten games » type of match in the semi-tropical conditions of Havana, especially as drawn games were becoming more frequent and the match might last for over six months. He therefore made a counter-proposal: if neither player had a lead of at least two games by the end of the match, it should be considered a draw; the match should be limited to the best of thirty games, counting draws; except that if either player won six games and led by at least two games before thirty games were completed, he should be declared the winner; the champion should decide the venue and stakes, and should have the exclusive right to publish the games; the challenger should deposit a forfeit of US $2,000 (equivalent to over $194,000 in 2006 values ); the time limit should be twelve moves per hour; play should be limited to two sessions of 2½ hours each per day, five days a week. Capablanca objected to the time limit, the short playing times, the thirty-game limit, and especially the requirement that he must win by two games to claim the title, which he regarded as unfair. Lasker took offence at the terms in which Capablanca criticized the two-game lead condition and broke off negotiations, and until 1914 Lasker and Capablanca were not on speaking terms. However, at the 1914 St. Petersburg tournament, Capablanca proposed a set of rules for the conduct of World Championship matches, which were accepted by all the leading players including Lasker. 
Late in 1912 Lasker entered into negotiations for a world title match with Akiba Rubinstein, whose tournament record for the previous few years had been on a par with Lasker’s and a little ahead of Capablanca’s.  The two players agreed to play a match if Rubinstein could raise the funds, but Rubinstein had few rich friends to back him and the match was never played. The start of World War I put an end to hopes that Lasker would play either Rubinstein or Capablanca for the World Championship in the near future.   Throughout World War I (1914–1918) Lasker played in only two serious chess events. He convincingly won (5½-½) a non-title match against Tarrasch in 1916.  In September–October 1918, shortly before the armistice, he won a quadrangular (four-player) tournament, half a point ahead of Rubinstein. 
Academic activities 1894–1918
David Hilbert encouraged Lasker to obtain a Ph.D in mathematics.
Despite his superb playing results, chess was not Lasker’s only interest. His parents recognized his intellectual talents, especially for mathematics, and sent the adolescent Emanuel to study in Berlin (where he found he also had a talent for chess). Lasker gained his abitur (high school graduation certificate) at Landsberg an der Warthe, now a Polish town named Gorzów Wielkopolski but then part of Prussia. He then studied mathematics and philosophy at the universities in Berlin, Göttingen and Heidelberg. 
In 1895 Lasker published two mathematical articles in Nature.  On the advice of David Hilbert he registered for doctoral studies at Erlangen during 1900–1902.  In 1901 he presented his doctoral thesis Über Reihen auf der Convergenzgrenze (« On Series at Convergence Boundaries ») at Erlangen and in the same year it was published by the Royal Society.   He was awarded a doctorate in mathematics in 1902.  His most significant mathematical article, in 1905, published a theorem of which Emmy Noether developed a more generalized form, which is now regarded as of fundamental importance to modern algebra and algebraic geometry.  
Lasker held short-term positions as a mathematics lecturer at Tulane University in New Orleans (1893) and Victoria University in Manchester (1901; Victoria University was one of the « parents » of the current University of Manchester).  However he was unable to secure a longer-term position, and pursued his scholarly interests independently. 
In 1906 Lasker published a booklet titled Kampf (Struggle),  in which he attempted to create a general theory of all competitive activities, including chess, business and war. He produced two other books which are generally categorized as philosophy, Das Begreifen der Welt (Comprehending the World; 1913) and Die Philosophie des Unvollendbar (The Philosophy of the Unattainable; 1918). 
Other activities 1894–1918
In 1896–1897 Lasker published his book Common Sense in Chess, based on lectures he had given in London in 1895. 
Ostend against Mikhail Chigorin, a six-game match that was sponsored by the wealthy lawyer and industrialist Isaac Rice in order to test the Rice Gambit.  Lasker narrowly lost the match. Three years later Lasker became secretary of the Rice Gambit Association, founded by Rice in order to promote the Rice Gambit,  and in 1907 Lasker quoted with approval Rice’s views on the convergence of chess and military strategy. 
In November 1904, Lasker founded Lasker’s Chess Magazine, which ran until 1909. 
For a short time in 1906 Emanuel Lasker was interested in the strategy game Go, but soon returned to chess. Curiously he was introduced to the game by his namesake Edward Lasker, who wrote a successful book Go and Go-Moku in 1934. 
At the age of 42, in July 1911, Lasker married Martha Cohn (née Bamberger), a rich widow who was a year older than Lasker and already a grandmother. They lived in Berlin.   
Martha Cohn wrote popular stories under the pseudonym « L. Marco ».  
During World War I, Lasker invested all of his savings in German war bonds. Since Germany lost the war, Lasker lost all his money. During the war, he wrote a book which claimed that civilization would be in danger if Germany lost the war. 
Match against Capablanca
In January 1920 Lasker and José Raúl Capablanca signed an agreement to play a World Championship match in 1921, noting that Capablanca was not free to play in 1920. Because of the delay Lasker insisted on a final clause that: allowed him to play anyone else for the championship in 1920; nullified the contract with Capablanca if Lasker lost a title match in 1920; and stipulated that if Lasker resigned the title Capablanca should become World Champion. Lasker had previously included in his agreement before World War I to play Akiba Rubinstein for the title a similar clause that if he resigned the title, it should become Rubinstein’s. 
A report in the American Chess Bulletin (July–August 1920 issue) said that Lasker had resigned the world title in favor of Capablanca because the conditions of the match were unpopular in the chess world. The American Chess Bulletin speculated that the conditions were not sufficiently unpopular to warrant resignation of the title, and that Lasker’s real concern was that there was not enough financial backing to justify his devoting nine months to the match.  When Lasker resigned the title in favor of Capablanca he was unaware that enthusiasts in Havana had just raised $20,000 to fund the match provided it was played there. When Capablanca learned of Lasker’s resignation he went to Holland, where Lasker was living at the time, to inform him that Havana would finance the match. In August 1920 Lasker agreed to play in Havana, but insisted that he was the challenger as Capablanca was now the champion. Capablanca signed an agreement that accepted this point, and soon afterwards published a letter confirming this. Lasker also stated that, if he beat Capablanca, he would resign the title so that younger masters could compete for it. 
The match was played in March–April 1921. After four draws, the fifth game saw Lasker blunder with Black in an equal ending. Capablanca’s solid style allowed him to easily draw the next four games, without taking any risks. In the tenth game, Lasker as White played a position with an isolated queen pawn but failed to create the necessary activity and Capablanca reached a superior ending, which he duly won. The eleventh and fourteenth games were also won by Capablanca, and Lasker resigned the match. 
Reuben Fine and Harry Golombek attributed this to Lasker’s being in mysteriously poor form.   On the other hand Vladimir Kramnik thought that Lasker played quite well and the match was an « even and fascinating fight » until Lasker blundered in the last game, and explained that Capablanca was twenty years younger, a slightly stronger player, and had more recent competitive practice. 
1921 – end of life
By this time Lasker was nearly 53 years old, and he never played another serious match;   his only other match was a short exhibition against Frank James Marshall in 1940, which he won. After winning the New York 1924 chess tournament (1½ points ahead of Capablanca) and finishing second at Moscow in 1925 (1½ points behind Efim Bogoljubow, ½ point ahead of Capablanca),  he effectively retired from serious chess. 
Emanuel Lasker and his brother Berthold Lasker in 1907
During the Moscow 1925 chess tournament, Emanuel Lasker received a telegram informing him that the drama written by himself and his brother Berthold, Vom Menschen die Geschichte (« History of Mankind »), had been accepted for performance at the Lessing theatre in Berlin. Emanuel Lasker was so distracted by this news that he lost badly to Carlos Torre the same day.  The play, however, was not a success. 
In 1926 Lasker wrote Lehrbuch des Schachspiels, which he re-wrote in English in 1927 as Lasker’s Manual of Chess.  He also wrote books on other games of mental skill: Encyclopedia of Games (1929) and Das verständige Kartenspiel (means « Sensible Card Play »; 1929; English translation in the same year), both of which posed a problem in the mathematical analysis of card games;  Brettspiele der Völker (« Board Games of the Nations »; 1931), which includes 30 pages about Go and a section about a game he had invented in 1911, Lasca;  and Das Bridgespiel (« The Game of Bridge »; 1931).  Lasker became an expert bridge player, representing Germany at international events in the early 1930s,   and a registered teacher of the Culbertson system. 
In October 1928 Emanuel Lasker’s brother Berthold died.  
In spring 1933 Adolf Hitler started a campaign of discrimination and intimidation against Jews, depriving them of their property and citizenship. Lasker and his wife Martha, who were both Jewish, were forced to leave Germany in the same year.   After a short stay in England, in 1935 they were invited to live in the USSR by Nikolai Krylenko, the Commissar of Justice who was responsible for the Moscow show trials and, in his other capacity as Sports Minister, was an enthusiastic supporter of chess.  In the USSR, Lasker renounced his German citizenship and received Soviet citizenship.  He took permanent residence in Moscow, and was given a post at Moscow’s Institute for Mathematics  and a post of trainer of the USSR national team.  Lasker returned to competitive chess to make some money, finishing fifth in Zürich 1934 and third in Moscow 1935 (undefeated, ½ point behind Mikhail Botvinnik and Salo Flohr; ahead of Capablanca, Rudolf Spielmann and several Soviet masters), sixth in Moscow 1936 and seventh equal in Nottingham 1936.  His performance in Moscow 1935 at age 66 was hailed as « a biological miracle. » 
Joseph Stalin’s Great Purge started at about the same time the Laskers arrived in the USSR. In August 1937, Martha and Emanuel Lasker decided to leave the Soviet Union, and they moved, via the Netherlands, to the United States (first Chicago, next New York) in October 1937.  In the following year Emanuel Lasker’s patron, Krylenko, was purged. Lasker tried to support himself by giving chess and bridge lectures and exhibitions, as he was now too old for serious competition.   In 1940 he published his last book, The Community of the Future, in which he proposed solutions for serious political problems, including anti-Semitism and unemployment.  He died of a kidney infection in New York on January 11, 1941, at the age of 72, as a charity patient at the Mount Sinai Hospital.  He was buried in the Beth Olom Cemetery, Queens, New York.  He was survived by his wife Martha and his sister, Mrs. Lotta Hirschberg.  
Chess strength and style
Lasker was considered to have a « psychological » method of play in which he considered the subjective qualities of his opponent, in addition to the objective requirements of his position on the board. Richard Réti published a lengthy analysis of Lasker’s play in which he concluded that Lasker deliberately played inferior moves that he knew would make his opponent uncomfortable.  W. H. K. Pollock commented, « It is no easy matter to reply correctly to Lasker’s bad moves. » 
Lasker himself denied the claim that he deliberately played bad moves, and most modern writers agree. According to Grandmaster Andrew Soltis and International Master John L. Watson, the features that made his play mysterious to contemporaries now appear regularly in modern play: the g2-g4 « Spike » attack against the Dragon Sicilian; sacrifices to gain positional advantage; playing the « practical » move rather than trying to find the best move; counterattacking and complicating the game before a disadvantage became serious. Former World Champion Vladimir Kramnik writes, « He realized that different types of advantage could be interchangeable: tactical edge could be converted into strategic advantage and vice versa », which mystified contemporaries who were just becoming used to the theories of Steinitz as codified by Siegbert Tarrasch.
The famous win against José Raúl Capablanca at St. Petersburg in 1914, which Lasker needed in order to retain any chance of catching up with Capablanca, is sometimes offered as evidence of his « psychological » approach. Reuben Fine describes Lasker’s choice of opening, the Exchange Variation of the Ruy Lopez, as « innocuous but psychologically potent. » However, an analysis of Lasker’s use of this variation throughout his career concludes that he had excellent results with it as White against top-class opponents, and sometimes used it in « must-win » situations.  Ludek Pachman writes that Lasker’s choice presented his opponent with a dilemma: with only a ½ point lead, Capablanca would have wanted to play safe; but the Exchange Variation’s pawn structure gives White an endgame advantage, and Black must use his bishop pair aggressively in the middle game to nullify this. In Kramnik’s opinion, Lasker’s play in this game demonstrated deep positional understanding, rather than psychology.
Fine reckoned Lasker paid little attention to the openings, but Capablanca thought Lasker knew the openings very well, but disagreed with a lot of contemporary opening analysis. In fact before the 1894 world title match Lasker studied the openings thoroughly, especially Steinitz’ favorite lines. In Capablanca’s opinion, no player surpassed Lasker in the ability to assess a position quickly and accurately, in terms of who had the better prospects of winning and what strategy each side should adopt. Capablanca also wrote that Lasker was so adaptable that he played in no definite style, and that he was both a tenacious defender and a very efficient finisher of his own attacks.
In addition to his enormous chess skill Lasker had an excellent competitive temperament: his bitter rival Siegbert Tarrasch once said, « Lasker occasionally loses a game, but he never loses his head. » Lasker enjoyed the need to adapt to varying styles and to the shifting fortunes of tournaments. Although very strong in matches, he was even stronger in tournaments. For over twenty years, he always finished ahead of the younger Capablanca: at St. Petersburg 1914, New York 1924, Moscow 1925, and Moscow 1935. Only in 1936 (15 years after their match), when Lasker was 67, was Capablanca able to finish ahead of him.
In 1964, Chessworld magazine published an article in which future World Champion Bobby Fischer listed the ten greatest players in history.  Fischer did not include Lasker in the list, deriding him as a « coffee-house player [who] knew nothing about openings and didn’t understand positional chess. » In a poll of the world’s leading players taken sometime after Fischer’s list appeared, Tal, Korchnoi, and Robert Byrne all said that Lasker was the greatest player ever.  Both Pal Benko and Byrne said that Fischer later reconsidered and admitted that Lasker was a great player.
Statistical ranking systems place Lasker high among the greatest players of all time. The book Warriors of the Mind places him sixth, behind Garry Kasparov, Anatoly Karpov, Fischer, Mikhail Botvinnik and Capablanca. In his 1978 book The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and Present, Arpad Elo gave retrospective ratings to players based on their performance over the best five-year span of their career. He concluded that Lasker was the joint second strongest player of those surveyed (tied with Botvinnik and behind Capablanca). The most up-to-date system, Chessmetrics, is rather sensitive to the length of the periods being compared, and ranks Lasker between fifth and second strongest of all time for peak periods ranging in length from one to twenty years. Its author, the statistician Jeff Sonas, concluded that only Kasparov and Karpov surpassed Lasker’s long-term dominance of the game. By Chessmetrics’ reckoning, Lasker was the number 1 player in 292 different months – a total of over 24 years. His first No. 1 rank was in June 1890, and his last in December 1926 – a span of 36½ years. Chessmetrics also considers him the strongest 67-year-old in history: in December 1935, at age 67 years and 0 months, his rating was 2691 (number 7 in the world), well above second-place Viktor Korchnoi’s rating at that age (2660, number 39 in the world, in March 1998).
Influence on chess
Lasker at home in Berlin, in 1933
Lasker founded no school of players who played in a similar style. Max Euwe, World Champion 1935–37 and a prolific writer of chess manuals, who had a lifetime 0–3 score against Lasker, said, « It is not possible to learn much from him. One can only stand and wonder. » However Lasker’s pragmatic, combative approach had a great influence on Soviet players like Mikhail Tal and Viktor Korchnoi.
There are several « Lasker Variations » in the chess openings, including Lasker’s Defense to the Queen’s Gambit, Lasker’s Defense to the Evans Gambit (which effectively ended the use of this gambit in tournament play until a revival in the 1990s), and the Lasker Variation in the McCutcheon Variation of the French Defense.
One of Lasker’s most famous games is Lasker – Bauer, Amsterdam 1889, in which he sacrificed both bishops in a maneuver later repeated in a number of games. Similar sacrifices had already been played by Cecil Valentine De Vere and John Owen, but these were not in major events and Lasker probably had not seen them.
Lasker was shocked by the poverty in which Wilhelm Steinitz died and did not intend to die in similar circumstances. He became notorious for demanding high fees for playing matches and tournaments, and he argued that players should own the copyright in their games rather than let publishers get all the profits. These demands initially angered editors and other players, but helped to pave the way for the rise of full-time chess professionals who earn most of their living from playing, writing and teaching. Copyright in chess games had been contentious at least as far back as the mid-1840s, and Steinitz and Lasker vigorously asserted that players should own the copyright and wrote copyright clauses into their match contracts. However Lasker’s demands that challengers should raise large purses prevented or delayed some eagerly-awaited World Championship matches — for example Frank James Marshall challenged him in 1904 to a match for the World Championship but could not raise the stakes demanded by Lasker until 1907. This problem continued throughout the reign of his successor Capablanca.
Some of the controversial conditions that Lasker insisted on for championship matches led Capablanca to attempt twice (1914 and 1922) to publish rules for such matches, to which other top players readily agreed.
Work in other fields
Lasker was also a mathematician. In his 1905 article on commutative algebra, Lasker introduced the theory of primary decomposition of ideals, which has influence in the theory of Noetherian rings. Rings having the primary decomposition property are called » Laskerian rings » in his honor.
His attempt to create a general theory of all competitive activities were followed by more consistent efforts from von Neumann on game theory, and his later writings about card games presented a significant issue in the mathematical analysis of card games.
However, his dramatic and philosophical works have never been highly regarded.
Friends and relatives
Lasker was a good friend of Albert Einstein, who wrote the introduction to the posthumous biography Emanuel Lasker, The Life of a Chess Master from Dr. Jacques Hannak (1952). In this preface Einstein express his satisfaction at having met Lasker, writing:
Emanuel Lasker was undoubtedly one of the most interesting people I came to know in my later years. We must be thankful to those who have penned the story of his life for this and succeeding generations. For there are few men who have had a warm interest in all the great human problems and at the same time kept their personality so uniquely independent.
Poetess Else Lasker-Schüler was his sister-in-law. Edward Lasker, born in Kempen (Kepno), Greater Poland (then Prussia), the German-American chess master, engineer, and author, claimed that he was distantly related to Emanuel Lasker. They both played in the great New York 1924 chess tournament.
- The London Chess Fortnightly, 1892–1893 
- Common Sense in Chess, 1896 (an abstract of 12 lectures delivered to a London audience in 1895)
- Lasker’s How to Play Chess: An Elementary Text Book for Beginners, Which Teaches Chess By a New, Easy and Comprehensive Method, 1900
- Lasker’s Chess Magazine, OCLC 
- The International Chess Congress, St. Petersburg, 1909, 1910
- Lasker’s Manual of Chess, 1925, is as famous in chess circles for its philosophical tone as for its content. 
- Lehrbuch des Schachspiels, 1926 — English version Lasker’s Manual of Chess published in 1927.
- Lasker’s Chess Primer, 1934
- Kampf (Struggle), 1906.
- Encyclopedia of Games, 1929.
- Das verständige Kartenspiel (Sensible Card Play), 1929 — English translation published in the same year.
- Brettspiele der Völker (Board Games of the Nations), 1931 — includes sections about Go and Lasca.
- Das Bridgespiel (« The Game of Bridge »), 1931.
- Das Begreifen der Welt (Comprehending the World), 1913.
- Die Philosophie des Unvollendbar (The Philosophy of the Unattainable), 1918.
- Vom Menschen die Geschichte (« History of Mankind »), 1925 — a play, co-written with his brother Berthold.
- The Community of the Future, 1940.
- « Lies and hypocrisy do not survive for long on the chessboard. The creative combination lies bare the presumption of a lie, while the merciless fact, culminating in a checkmate, contradicts the hypocrite. »
- « Education in Chess has to be an education in independent thinking and judgement. Chess must not be memorized, simply because it is not important enough. … Memory is too valuable to be stocked with trifles. »
- W. H. K. Pollock: « It is no easy matter to reply correctly to Lasker’s bad moves. »
- Viktor Korchnoi: « My chess hero »
- Mikhail Tal: « The greatest of the champions was, of course, Emanuel Lasker »
- sacrifice, this combination is now known as a « Lasker-Bauer combination » or « Lasker sacrifice ».
- endgame in which he quickly ties Marshall in knots.