___. 31Stanley, A Nation in the Making: 168â169. See Michael Paul Onorato, âQuezon and Independence: A Reexamination,â Philippine Studies 37, no. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1915. Correspondents include Manuel Luis Quezon. 2 (1989): 221â239. Manila: N.p., 1968. 1Congressional Record, House, 64th Cong., 1st sess. Quezon was instrumental in the approval and adoption of the Jones Act. Address of the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manuel L. Quezon. You have a country. Tags: Manuel L. Quezon, messages. His Spanish parents were Lucio Quezón and María Dolores Molina. Alex Frieder pleaded with President Quezon to help rescue the Jews, which he did. Manuel L. Quezon began working as a clerk and surveyor, and was appointed treasurer in Mindoro in 1905. Already fluent in Spanish, Tagalog, and the local dialects in Tayabas, Quezon recalled the âmost serious obstacle to the performance of my duties in Washington was my very limited knowledge of the English language.â He hired a tutor, but soon began teaching himself using a SpanishâEnglish dictionary to read books, magazines, and newspapers.21 His American friends gave him the nickname Casey, an anglicization of Quezon.22, Quezonâs first term in Congress was relatively quiet legislatively. Quezon, Man of Destiny. Instead, they were elected by town councilors, who themselves had been popularly elected under restrictive suffrage laws. (28 September 1914): 15843; Congressional Record, House, 63rd Cong., 2nd sess. The bill also lengthened the general term of service for Filipino Resident Commissioners to four years and raised their office budgets to match those of the rest of Congress.33, It was not until the fall of 1912 that the assembly and the commission reached a deal. He led the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919. Quezon, Manuel L., and Camilo Osias. Peter W. Stanley (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984): 64â69; Peter W. Stanley, âQuezon, Manuel Luis, (Aug. 19, 1878âAug. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1974. He lived in Saranac Lake in Upstate New York as his health started to fail. In his honor, an outlying suburb of Manila was named Quezon City and became the site of the national capital of the Philippines.86. A finding aid is available in the repository and online. Democrats cried foul, criticizing the William H. Taft administration for approving the sale, and began considering ways to clamp down on deals with U.S. monopolies.35, In Washington Quezon called out Democrats for timing their criticism to coincide with the upcoming presidential election, but he joined the chorus opposing the sale of additional friar lands.36 In mid-May 1912, Quezon delivered two long, impassioned speeches on the House Floor, filling the Congressional Record. He undertook an enormous social justice program which introduced a minimum wage law, eight-hour work day, a tenancy law for the Filipino farmers in addition to establishing the court of Industrial Relations to mediate disputes. With Sergio OsmeÃ±aâs help, Quezon sidestepped Harrison, drafting a new independence bill with the cooperation of the Wilson administration in Washington.50, Quezonâs new proposal postponed independence for almost a generation and gave the President a say in the Philippinesâ affairs, but it also transferred much of the daily management of the islands to the Filipino people. I notice not a single Republican voted for the Clarke amendment. 3 Notwithstanding the fact that he is remembered only as a nationalist hero, Manuel Quezon was a shrewd politician. View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress. Message of His Excellency Manuel L. Quezon President of the Philippines In connection with the Observance of Rizal Day [Delivered in the United States, December 30, 1942] ... Our country has been the meeting-ground of the … For newspaper coverage of the friar land sales in newspapers, see, for example, âProtest Sale of Friar Lands in Philippines,â 1 January 1912, Christian Science Monitor: 9; âCommittee Asks Friarsâ Lands Be Sold Off in Lots,â 11 January 1912, Christian Science Monitor: 1; âMay âGobbleâ Friar Lands,â 9 May 2012, Washington Post: 4; âWould Protect Friar Lands,â 9 May 2012, Baltimore Sun: 11. Belying his inexperienceâhe had been in politics less than two yearsâQuezon deftly maneuvered past two other candidates and overcame shifting alliances to win his seat.10, As a local politician, Quezon had not yet aligned with any national political party. 5Manuel Luis Quezon, The Good Fight (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1946): 88. His campaign showed his native political wisdom when he sided with popular issues in a somewhat opportunistic manner. Quezon arrived in Washington, DC, in December 1909 wearing a thick fur overcoat to protect him from the early winter chill and took up residence at the Champlain Apartment House, a new building at the corner of 14th and K Streets in Northwest.20 Quezon received House Floor and debate privileges but was not permitted to serve on any committees. See also Stanley, A Nation in the Making: 213â214, quotation on p. 213. 42Stanley, A Nation in the Making: 172â173; âCommittee Head Steals Clineâs Glory as Future Emancipator of Filipinos.â On Jonesâs illness, see Congressional Record, Appendix, 63rd Cong., 2nd sess. Quezon: Paladin of Philippine Freedom. He also saved nearly 2,500 European Jews from the Holocaust, for which he was posthumously bestowed the Wallenberg Medal by the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. Shortly after, he matriculated to the University of Santo Tomas, also in Manila, to study law.4, About a year later, however, Quezon left school and returned home during the Philippinesâ revolution against Spain. The noted historian Alfred W. McCoy cites a U.S. military intelligence report claiming that Quezonâs biological father was a âPadreâ who had an affair with Quezonâs mother which resulted in her getting pregnant with Manuel. At the time of his death he and his government were in exile in the United States waiting until that country’s armed forces could liberate the islands from the Japanese. T. W. Koch]. 1884-1938, 0.3 linear foot. Manila: Publishers Incorporated, 1940. Gwekoh, Sol H. Manuel L. Quezon: His Life and Career; A Philippine President Biography. As a result of his carefully crafted compromise, Quezon enjoyed a smooth re-election to the 63rd and 64th Congresses (1913â1917).34, Throughout the first decade of the 20th century, American corporations looking to open outposts in the Philippines had been stifled by a law preventing them from buying land in large enough quantities to open commercial farms. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvaras the second Philippine President, having … 21Quezon, The Good Fight: 114â115; Felix F. Gabriel, âManuel L. Quezon As Resident Commissioner, 1909â1916,â Philippine Historical Bulletin (September 1962): 254. Quezon: Paladin of Philippine Freedom. 33Congressional Record, House, 61st Cong., 3rd sess. 71Congressional Record, Appendix, 64th Cong., 1st sess. New York: J. Messner, 1970. Despite his own reservations about independence, Quezon replied that he was simply doing the peopleâs work and would continue to fight. During a career that spanned the length of Americaâs colonial rule in the Philippines, Manuel L. Quezon held an unrivaled grasp upon territorial politics that culminated with his service as the commonwealthâs first president. 76âSee Filipinos Free by 1921,â 26 August 1916, New York Tribune: 4. He later returned to the university to complete his degree and passed the bar in 1903. After a funeral mass at St. Matthewâs Cathedral in Washington attended by high-ranking American military officials, Quezonâs body was placed in a mausoleum at Arlington National Cemetery until it could be repatriated to the Philippines.84 American forces began an invasion of the Philippines in October 1944 and captured Manila in February 1945. 23Michael Paul Onorato argues that Quezon opposed complete independence, preferring a permanent political link to the United States. (1 May 1916): 7144â7214; âNo Independence for Philippines,â 2 May 1916, Atlanta Constitution: 2. 4Roger Soiset, âQuezon, Manuel Luis,â American National Biography 18 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 28â29; Michael Cullinane, âThe Politics of Collaboration in Tayabas Province: The Early Political Career of Manuel Luis Quezon, 1903â1906,â in Reappraising an Empire: New Perspectives on Philippine-American History, ed. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on House Administration by the Office of the Historian and the Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. MacArthur and Manuel Quezon would say goodbye for the last time He gave his ring to the general saying, "When they find your body, I want them to know you fought for my country." The assembly and the commission selected one candidate each, which the opposite chamber then had to ratify. They had it all figured out in advance.â, Surprisingly enough, the bill did not die in conference with the Senate.73 Not long after the Jones bill cleared the House there were whispers that the Senate would acquiesce and abandon the Clarke amendment as well. Because Legarda opposed immediate independence, the assembly refused to certify his nomination. In 1907 the Philippines began sending two Resident Commissioners to the U.S. Congress to lobby on behalf of the territoryâs interests. Luisa died in infancy.80, Quezon also kept one foot in Washington. 36McCoy, Policing Americaâs Empire: 255â256. The islands would remain under Americaâs military umbrella for the next two decades while a separate resolution would force other foreign powers to stay clear of Manila while the new government settled in.43, âAs a representative of the Filipino people in this country, I have given my hearty approval and co-operation to both the bill and the resolution,â Quezon said in a letter to the New York Tribune. Republicans moved to table the legislation, but Quezon fought them point by point, arguing that the looming threat of a world war made Philippine autonomy more important than ever. Quezon: Thoughts and Anecdotes About Him and His Fights. But that threatened to bring a host of troublesome issues with it, including widespread financial problems that could derail the future of the Philippines.68 If Quezon opposed the amendment, however, the bill could fail altogether, erasing years of work.69, Quezon ended up supporting the Clarke amendment, and when the bill went back to the House, Chairman Jones begrudgingly brought the Senate version to the floor on May 1, 1916. Quezon the President. 37Congressional Record, House, 62nd Cong., 2nd sess. In this case, Laurel was the perfect man to soften the blow of enemy occupation, having received an honorary law degree at Tokyo University. 67Stanley, A Nation in the Making: 221; House Committee on Insular Affairs, Political Status of the Philippine Islands, 64th Cong., 1st sess., H. Rept. Manuel L. Quezon was born as Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina on August 19, 1878, in Baler in the district of El Príncipe, which is now known as Aurora, named after his wife. His body was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. 50Stanley, A Nation in the Making: 212â213. The two Americans soon adopted Quezon as a protÃ©gÃ©.6, As a result, Quezon routinely walked a fine line, balancing the colonial agenda of his powerful American associates, the interests of Philippine nationalists, and his own career ambitions. A finding aid is available in the library. Other authors include Manuel Luis Quezon. If the alternative was the status quo, âI am for the Clarke amendment body and soul,â he said.71, Despite Quezonâs impassioned remarks, enough Democrats teamed up with Republicans to vote down Clarkeâs âpoison pill.â Jones offered a few changes in keeping with the Clarke amendment, but when those failed as well, the chairman submitted his own Philippine bill, which more or less mirrored the one the House passed at the end of the 63rd Congress and which contained the âstableâ government provision. Publicly, he toed the party line on immediate independence, but, privately, he believed his territory should wait for independence for at least a generation.23 Quezonâs primary goal as Resident Commissioner was to win the hearts and minds of the American peopleâand, consequently, Congressâto support greater political autonomy in the Philippines.24 Accordingly, he acted more like a publicist than a lawmaker. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild, 1971. 39McCoy, Policing Americaâs Empire: 256; Quirino, Quezon: Paladin of Philippine Freedom: 96â97. He worked the angles in Washington to influence territorial appointments and lobbied for changes to the Philippine commission.47 In August Quezon won a substantial victory when he convinced President Wilson to appoint Democrat Francis Burton Harrison of New York, a supporter of independence and a powerful member of the House Ways and Means Committee, as the Philippinesâ new governor general.48, Quezon thought highly of Harrison, and Harrison returned the sentiment, later calling the Resident Commissioner âone of the greatest safety-valvesâ Manila had in Washington. 51Garrison to Wilson, 19 January 1914, in The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol. His campaign showed his native political wisdom when he sided with popular issues in a somewhat opportunistic manner. 59Congressional Record, House, 63rd Cong., 2nd sess. (1 May 1912): 5698â5703. The Good Fight. A finding aid is available in the repository and online. Philippines. The roots of the story go back to 1935, when MacArthur accepted the offer of Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon to become his country's top military advisor. Regardless of his motivations, Congress and the President controlled the fate of the islands, and the Resident Commissioners, despite not being able to vote in the House, were best positioned to influence the territoryâs political future on Capitol Hill.16, âI have every reason to believe that I shall succeed in my ambition, or I certainly should not permit my name to go before the Assembly,â Quezon told the Manila Times when asked about his candidacy.17 Though initial reports indicated that Ocampo was surprised by the challenge, the incumbent later published telegrams to and from OsmeÃ±a indicating his desire to retire.18 Quezon won handily with 61 of the 71 available votes, Ocampo received four votesâostensibly âcomplimentaryâ gestures out of respect for his serviceâand a third candidate received none.19. Manuel later resigned as commissioner that year and headed back to the Philippines. 20Quirino, Quezon: Paladin of Philippine Freedom: 89; Frank H. Golay, Face of Empire: United StatesâPhilippine Relations, 1898â1946 (Manila, PI: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998): 165â166.
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